October 3, 2023

Researchers have discovered a process injection method without relying on EDR-monitored APIs that resulted in Mockingjay, a novel method for process injection that leverages dynamic link libraries (DLLs) with default read, write, and execute (RWX) permissions to push code into the address space of a running process.

The approach reduces the likelihood of an endpoint security mechanism detecting a malicious process injection effort and requires a smaller number of steps to achieve. This unique approach, which involves leveraging a vulnerable DLL and copying code to the appropriate section, allowed us to inject code without memory allocation, permission setting, or even starting a thread in the targeted process


Process injection is a technique for manipulating the memory of a process to either add new functionality or modify its behavior. Attackers commonly use the method to hide malicious code and evade detection on compromised systems.

Common process injection methods include self-injection where a process that receives the injected payload also executes it; DLL injection where a malicious DLL is loaded into the memory space of a process; and PE injection where a portable executable file is mapped into the memory of a running process.

The APIs required for self-injection are VirtualAlloc, LocalAlloc, GlobalAlloc, and Virtual Protect. The APIs used in PE injection are VirtualAllocEx, WriteProcessMemory, and CreateRemoteThread. Most EDR systems are tuned to monitor commonly used APIs in process injection attacks and can effectively identify malicious activity associated with their use.

Researchers developed a tool that explored the entire Windows file system to identify DLLs that could serve as potential vehicles for code injection without triggering an EDR alert. The exploration resulted finding a DLL (msys-2.0.dll) with 16KB of RWX space in Visual Studio 2022 Community that they could use for injecting and executing their own code.

The first method was to directly loadong the vulnerable DLL into the memory space of a custom application called nightmare.exe. This allowed researchers to inject and execute their own shellcode into the memory space of the application without leveraging any Windows APIs. Among other things, the shellcode also removed all EDR hooks without triggering any alerts.


The second method was to abuse the RWX section in the DLL, which was to do process injection in a remote process. To achieve this, they first identified binaries that used mysys-2.0.dll for their operations. Many of these were associated with GNU utilities and other applications that require POSIX emulation.

The DLL that its researchers used to develop Mockingjay is just one of potentially many others that can similarly be abused for code injection purposes. Addressing the threat requires endpoint security tools that don’t just monitor specific APIs and DLLs but also use behavioral analysis and machine learning techniques to identify process injection.

This research was documented by researchers from Security Joes.

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